Types of Operating Systems

Types of Operating Systems

WHAT IS OPERATING SYSTEM An operating system acts as an interface between the computer hardware and the user. It is system software which runs on the computer, as soon as the computer is switched on. It brings the computer in to operating condition that is it makes the computer ready to be used by the programmer. This process is called Booting. The operating system monitors and controls the execution of program entered through the input device. The operating system makes the control unit to load and execute the appropriate compiler. If the user requires printing the answer (or) result on the printer, operating system software should direct that output to the appropriate printer. The combination or collection of routines to read data, load compiler, load and initiate execution of program, control the output and monitor, the completion of job is called the operating system. This operating system provides an interface between the computer hardware and the programmer [user] that simplifies and makes feasible the creation, coding, debugging and maintenance of application programs.  Easy interaction between users and computers.  It provides access to compilers to translate programs from high level language to machine language [low  level language].  It controls input, output and program execution.  It provides long term storage of user information in the form of files.  It manages the usage of main memory.  TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS The types of operating systems are classified in to the following types. Consider them  Batch operating system.  Distributed operating system.  Multi-programming operating system  On-line operating system  Real-time operating system and  Time sharing operating system Consider each of them in detail…. Batch operating...
Multimedia Authoring Tools

Multimedia Authoring Tools

Multimedia Authoring Tools are also known as Author ware. It is a program that helps the author [user/programmer] write hyper text (or) multimedia application. Authoring tools usually enable a user to create a final application merely linking together. Objects such as paragraph of text, illustration (or) song can be embedded in a web page with the help of authoring tools. Multimedia authoring tools provide the frame work for organizing and editing the elements of multimedia projects. Authoring software provides an integrated element for combining the content and the functions of the project. It enables the developer to combine text, graphics, audio, video and animation into an interactive presentation. Authoring system includes editing tools to create, edit and convert multimedia elements such as animation and video clips. The process for multimedia involves story boarding and flow chart development. Visual flow chart (or) over viewing facility illustrates project structure at a macro level. In macro media flash, flash is used for delivering rich multimedia content to the web. It allows the creation simple; static HTML pages with the flash player Plug-in.  Features of Authoring Tools Basic features Editing and organizing features Programming features Interactivity features Performance timing and playback features Cross-platform and internet features TYPES OF AUTHORING TOOLS There are 3 types of authoring tools and they are as follows: 1. Card and page based tools  2. Icon based- event driven tools 3. Time based tools Now let us discuss these three authoring tools in details along with their required software, their corresponding advantages and disadvantages.  Card and page based tools: This tool provides a simple and easily understandable metaphor for...
Applications of Multimedia?

Applications of Multimedia?

  There are so many applications of multimedia in this web world. Let us consider few. They are as follows: Multimedia in Entertainment Multimedia in Business Multimedia in Software Multimedia in Education and Training Multimedia on the Web  Multimedia in Entertainment Multimedia in entertainment application aims at diverting users that is engaging them in some or the other activity. The activities include listening to music, watching a video, playing games, participating in an interactive story, meeting people at virtual environment etc. Higher interactivity, mobility, content awareness is major roles played by the multimedia application software. Multimedia is specially used in movie making and animations. Multimedia games are a popular past time and software programmes are also available in either CD-ROMs (or) on-line. Few video games are also uses multimedia features. Multimedia application that allows users to actively participate is called Interactive multimedia. Digital recording material may be just as durable and instantly reproducible with perfect copies every time.  Multimedia in Business Training, informational, promotional material, sales presentation point-of-sales displays that allow for consumer integration and communication within and outside the organization are all common applications of multimedia in the business world. Multimedia presentation for many applications can be highly portable particularly in the case of CD-ROMs, DVD-ROMs and video tapes. The equipment required to produce these presentations are relatively common place (or) otherwise easy to access. Existing presentation uses Grab-keep-Attention in advertising. Business-to-Business and inter office communication are often developed by creative service firms. For advance multimedia presentation beyond symbols, slide shows to sell idea live-up training, commercial multimedia developer may be hired to design Government services and non...
What is Multimedia?

What is Multimedia?

What is Multimedia? Multimedia is defined as computer based interactive communication process that incorporates text, graphics, sound , video and animation. The word multimedia refers to an integration of multiple media such as visual images, sound, text, video and animation which together can multiply the impact of the message on the other level. Interactive multimedia refers to that when a user becomes a regular viewer of the multimedia project and is allowed to control what and when the elements are delivered is termed as an interactive multimedia. When a structure of linked elements is provided to user through which they can interact then that multimedia becomes hyper media.  Text: Usually a text file in a computer exists with a variety of fonts with font colors, font styles, font size and can be used for emphasis of the information. Audio: A presentation moves to a firm level when a speech or an audio is arranged along with the content.  Audio adds life to the presentation. Media players are very helpful to listen to the audio clips. Video: Video clippings can be played back. The recent personal computer video technology with concepts likes MPEG [Moving Pictures Expert Group], Media Players and DVDs can be used. Graphics: It can be used for enhancing a presentation. It provides a usual visual impact on the viewer and generally said that “a picture is worth of thousand words”. Learn more about pictures and graphics here Animation: Artificial movements of text (or) objects created in virtual environment. Types of animations are divided in to two dimensional animations and three dimensional animations.  SCOPE OF THE MULTIMEDIA: Multimedia...
Types of Printers – Basic Guide to Printers

Types of Printers – Basic Guide to Printers

In the previous post we have discussed about Computer Input Devices, now let us have a look at different types of Printers which are Computer Output Devices. TYPES OF PRINTERS Printers are of two types; 1 . Impact printers 2 . Non-impact printers. In impact printers a hammer strikes a carbon coated ribbon to print and it is easy to obtain multiple copies by placing carbon sheets between the papers. Whereas in non-impact printers it traces the characters to be printed using ink (or) graphite particles. It does not use hammers. All the different types of printers fall into either impact printers or non-impact printers. Now let us discuss different types of printers in detail. DRUM PRINTER:  A drum printer consists of a cylindrical drum in which the characters [alphabets] are embedded on the surface of the drum. One complete set of characters is embossed for each print position on a line. Therefore a printer with 132 characters per line and a 96 character set will have on its surface that is 132*96=12672 characters embossed. The working mechanism is that the codes of all characters to be printed on one line are transmitted from the memory of the computer to a storage unit in the printer. A printer buffer register can normally store 132 character codes. The printer drum will be rotated in a circular motion at a high speed. A character is printed by striking a hammer against the embedded [embossed] character on the surface of the drum. As the drum rotates, the hammer waits until the character to be printed appears in front of it. Therefore the...
Lan Man Wan Intranet Extranet Hybrid Networks

Lan Man Wan Intranet Extranet Hybrid Networks

A network is a number of computers connected together to share information and hardware. The purpose of a network is to enable the sharing of files and information between multiple systems. The internet could be described as a global network of networks. Computer network can be connected through cables such as ether cables (phone lines) (or) wirelessly, using wireless networking cards (or data cards) that sends and receives data through the air. A network is actually a system which can consist of many things such as the computer and peripherals, specific networking cards within each computer and peripheral, the cables and communication lines which link all the computers and peripherals together, central hardware devices which connect computer and route data to the right places on the network (hubs, patch panels, routers)., network operating system software, networking software in each computer and peripheral that lets them talk [communicate] to each other, an ADDRESS system to identify each part of the network to all the other parts and often, a main computer usually called servers (or) Hosts. Hosts: A computer which mediates multiple accesses to data bases mounted on it’s (or) provides other services to a network. A host is a node in a network. In a network a node is a connection point, either a distribution point (or) an end point for data transmission. In general a node has programmed (or) engineering capability to recognize and process (or) forward transmission to other nodes. Lan Man Wan Intranet Extranet Hybrid Networks There are specially 6 kinds of networks are there. They are listed below   LAN [Local Area Network]   MAN...