Top 10 Differences between Primary and Secondary Memory – Infographic

Top 10 Differences between Primary and Secondary Memory – Infographic

PRIMARY MEMORY Primary memory is also known as Main memory or Internal memory In primary memory, data is directly accessed by the processing unit. Semi conductor chips are used to store information in primary memory. Information stored is temporary and it can be lost when there is a sudden power cut. Data operated and stored in uniform manner. Primary memory devices are more expensive than secondary storage devices. Nature of Parts of Primary memory varies. RAM- volatile in nature. ROM- Non-volatile It is very fast in interacting with micro processor. Primary memory has limited storage capacity. Examples: RAM, ROM, Cache memory, PROM, EPROM, Registers etc SECONDARY MEMORY Secondary memory is also known as External memory or Auxiliary memory In secondary memory, data is first transferred to main memory and then routed to processing unit. Magnetic disk, optical disks are used to store information in secondary memory. Information stored is permanent unless one deletes it intentionally. Data stored is not uniform in secondary memory. Secondary memory devices are less expensive when compare to primary memory devices. It’s always Non-volatile in nature. It is little slow in interacting with micro processor. Whereas secondary memory can store bulk amounts of data in a single unit. Examples: Magnetic Tapes, Optical Disc, Floppy Disks, Flash memory [USB drives], Paper Tape, Punched cards...
What is inside a Computer Monitor?

What is inside a Computer Monitor?

  Most of us spend a lot of time in front of our monitors, Let us know what is inside a computer monitor. Starting with basics. Monitor is the output device of the computer. Now- a- days they are called as I-O devices, because both input and output devices are connected together and are dependent on each other. Whatever information is accepted from the keyboard is also reflected on the monitor and the results obtained after processing are also seen on the monitor.  Monitors are also called as Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) terminals, or Visual Display Unit.  The Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) terminal or CRT monitors consists of an important component called picture tube or CRT.  This is connected to a video controller electronic circuit in the computer that supervises the operation of displaying the output or pictures on the display screen.  The CRT display device displays information as dots or picture elements (pixels) on the screen as it receives the information signals as video signals from the computer.  This device consists of an evacuated conical glass tube with phosphor coated on the inner front surface called screen. The tube consists of the following:  Electron source  Control Grid  Accelerating anode  Vertical deflection plates  Horizontal deflection plates  Interior metal coating  Screen with phosphor coating. Electron source: The electron source is a component inside the tube which consists of a heating filament and an oxide coated cathode.  This unit is a source of electrons.  The cathode is heated by a heating filament to emit a large number of electrons.  These electrons come to the control grid. Control Grid:  The control grid...
Types of Secondary storage Devices in Computers

Types of Secondary storage Devices in Computers

Secondary Storage Devices are essential as the size of Primary storage or main memory in every computer is limited. With this, the computer can only accommodate a limited sized program and data. To carry out big jobs like commercial data processing, it becomes essential that data be held in some expansive form of storage. This is achieved through secondary storage Devices. It is also called as external storage, and can hold data either sequentially or at random. You should always keep in in mind that data in secondary storage devices is not directly accessible and has to be routed through the main storage for processing. Types of Secondary storage Devices in Computers are:  Magnetic tape  Magnetic disk and  Magnetic drum. Magnetic tape: • Tapes are used for recording and storing data for computer processing. It is plastic reel similar to long lengths of movie film. A tape is usually ½” wide and 2400 feet in length and it is coated with particles of ferric oxide on which data can be recorded magnetically. • The process of reading and writing of data is carried out on a device called Tape Drive and the records on magnetic tape are stored in sequential order. For example: if the payroll file is to be stored on a magnetic tape, the records would likely to be stored in the sequence of employee numbers. Hence, magnetic tapes are referred to as sequential access device. Magnetic disk: • Magnetic disk is another type of secondary storage device known as random (direct) access as it permits direct accessing of data. An individual disk is a circular metal plate coated...
Types of Primary Memory in Computers

Types of Primary Memory in Computers

PRIMARY MEMORY As human beings have a memory system to remember even a tiny thing which went through in one’s life, similarly computer systems do contain a memory system which can store data and can be retrieved when desired. Why not after all it’s been designed and created by intellectual humans only.  Every computer system contains two kinds of memory out of which one is primary and the other is secondary memory. Basically a computer memory can store particularly two things. They are the data and the set of instructions to execute a program. Now let us take a brief look towards the types of primary storage (or) primary memory. This primary memory can be directly accessed by the processing unit. The contents in the primary memory are temporary. While performing a task if there is any power cut problems then we may lose the data which is in primary memory. One benefit is that we can store and retrieve the data with a considerable speed. Primary memory is more expensive when compared to secondary memory. RAM (Random Access Memory) could be the best example of primary memory. The primary memory in the computer system is in the form of Integrated Circuits. These circuits are nothing but RAM. Each of RAM’s locations can store one byte [1 Byte = 8 bits] of information. This can be in either of the forms 1 or 0. The primary storage section is made up of several small storage locations in the integrated circuits called cells. Every single cell can store fixed number of bits called word length. Each cell contains a unique number...
Types of Operating Systems

Types of Operating Systems

WHAT IS OPERATING SYSTEM An operating system acts as an interface between the computer hardware and the user. It is system software which runs on the computer, as soon as the computer is switched on. It brings the computer in to operating condition that is it makes the computer ready to be used by the programmer. This process is called Booting. The operating system monitors and controls the execution of program entered through the input device. The operating system makes the control unit to load and execute the appropriate compiler. If the user requires printing the answer (or) result on the printer, operating system software should direct that output to the appropriate printer. The combination or collection of routines to read data, load compiler, load and initiate execution of program, control the output and monitor, the completion of job is called the operating system. This operating system provides an interface between the computer hardware and the programmer [user] that simplifies and makes feasible the creation, coding, debugging and maintenance of application programs.  Easy interaction between users and computers.  It provides access to compilers to translate programs from high level language to machine language [low  level language].  It controls input, output and program execution.  It provides long term storage of user information in the form of files.  It manages the usage of main memory.  TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS The types of operating systems are classified in to the following types. Consider them  Batch operating system.  Distributed operating system.  Multi-programming operating system  On-line operating system  Real-time operating system and  Time sharing operating system Consider each of them in detail…. Batch operating...
Types of Printers – Basic Guide to Printers

Types of Printers – Basic Guide to Printers

In the previous post we have discussed about Computer Input Devices, now let us have a look at different types of Printers which are Computer Output Devices. TYPES OF PRINTERS Printers are of two types; 1 . Impact printers 2 . Non-impact printers. In impact printers a hammer strikes a carbon coated ribbon to print and it is easy to obtain multiple copies by placing carbon sheets between the papers. Whereas in non-impact printers it traces the characters to be printed using ink (or) graphite particles. It does not use hammers. All the different types of printers fall into either impact printers or non-impact printers. Now let us discuss different types of printers in detail. DRUM PRINTER:  A drum printer consists of a cylindrical drum in which the characters [alphabets] are embedded on the surface of the drum. One complete set of characters is embossed for each print position on a line. Therefore a printer with 132 characters per line and a 96 character set will have on its surface that is 132*96=12672 characters embossed. The working mechanism is that the codes of all characters to be printed on one line are transmitted from the memory of the computer to a storage unit in the printer. A printer buffer register can normally store 132 character codes. The printer drum will be rotated in a circular motion at a high speed. A character is printed by striking a hammer against the embedded [embossed] character on the surface of the drum. As the drum rotates, the hammer waits until the character to be printed appears in front of it. Therefore the...